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Key People:Antoine-Jérôme BalardViktor Meyer...(Show more)Related Topics:Chemical elementHalogen...(Show more)

Bromine (Br), chemical element, a deep red noxious liquid, and also a member that the halogen elements, or team 17 (Group VIIa) that the routine table.


Element Propertiesatomic numberatomic weightmelting pointboiling pointspecific gravityoxidation stateselectron configuration
35
<79.901, 79.907>
−7.2 °C (19 °F)
59 °C (138 °F)
3.12 in ~ 20 °C (68 °F)
−1, +1, +3, +5, +7
(Ar)3d104s24p5

History

Bromine was found in 1826 by the French chemist Antoine-Jérôme Balard in the residual water (bitterns) native the manufacture of sea salt at Montpellier. That liberated the aspect by passing chlorine with an aqueous equipment of the residues, which consisted of magnesium bromide. Distillation the the material with manganese dioxide and also sulfuric acid created red vapours, which condensed to a dark liquid. The similarity that this procedure to that for making chlorine suggested to Balard the he had obtained a new element similar to chlorine. (The German chemist Justus von Liebig appears to have derived the aspect before Balard, but he wrongly considered it to it is in iodine chloride.) due to the fact that of the poor odour the the element, the French Academy of Sciences argued the name bromine, indigenous the Greek indigenous bromos, meaning “bad smell” or “stench.”


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Occurrence and distribution

A rare element, bromine is uncovered in nature dispersed throughout earth crust only in compounds together soluble and also insoluble bromides. Part enrichment occurs in ocean water (65 components per million through weight), in the Dead Sea (approximately 5 grams every litre <0.7 oz per gallon>), in part thermal springs, and in rare insoluble silver bromide mineral (such together bromyrite, discovered in Mexico and also Chile). Herbal salt deposits and also brines space the main sources that bromine and its compounds. Jordan, Israel, China, and also the United states led the human being in bromine production in the early on 21st century; other important bromine-producing countries during that period include Japan, Ukraine, and also India.

Natural bromine is a mixture the two stable isotopes: bromine-79 (50.54 percent) and bromine-81 (49.46 percent). The the 17 well-known radioactive isotopes of the element, bromine-77 has the longest half-life (57 hours).


Physical and chemical properties

Free bromine is a reddish brown liquid with an appreciable vapour push at room temperature. Bromine vapour is amber in colour. Bromine has a pungent odour and also is irritating come the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Exposure to focused bromine vapour, also for a quick time, might be fatal. Prefer the other halogens, bromine exists together diatomic molecule in every aggregation states.

About 3.41 grams (0.12 ounce) that bromine dissolve in 100 millilitres (0.1 quart) of water in ~ room temperature. The solution is recognized as bromine water. Choose chlorine water, the is a good oxidizing agent, and it is much more useful due to the fact that it does no decompose so readily. It liberates cost-free iodine native iodide-containing solutions and also sulfur indigenous hydrogen sulfide. Sulfurous acid is oxidized through bromine water come sulfuric acid. In sunshine bromine water decomposes, v release that oxygen, together in the following equation:

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From bromine water a hydrate (a clathrate) have the right to be isolated that contains 172 water molecules and 20 cavities capable of accommodating the bromine molecules. Bromine disappear in aqueous alkali hydroxide solutions, providing bromides, hypobromites, or bromates, relying on the temperature. Bromine is conveniently extracted indigenous water by necessary solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, or carbon disulfide, in which that is very soluble. In the essential solvents it gives an orange solution.

The electron affinity that bromine is high and also is comparable to that of chlorine. The is, however, a less an effective oxidizing agent, chiefly due to the fact that of the weaker hydration that the bromide ion as compared with the chloride ion. Similarly, a metal-bromine bond is weaker 보다 the corresponding metal-chlorine bond, and this distinction is reflected in the chemical reactivity the bromine, i m sorry lies between that the chlorine and also that that iodine. An essential bromo compound resembles the matching chloro derivative but is usually much more dense, less volatile, less combustible, and less stable.

Bromine combine violently through the alkali metals and also with phosphorus, arsenic, aluminum, and also antimony however less violently with details other metals. Bromine displaces hydrogen from saturation hydrocarbons and also adds come unsaturated hydrocarbons, though not as easily as chlorine does.

The most stable oxidation state the the element is −1, in which bromine wake up naturally. But oxidation claims of 0 (elemental bromine, Br2), +1 (hypobromite, BrO−), +3 (bromite, BrO−2), +5 (bromate, BrO−3), and also +7 (perbromate, BrO−4) are additionally known. The very first ionization power of bromine is high, and also compounds comprise bromine in hopeful oxidation numbers room stabilized by suitable ligands, largely oxygen and also fluorine. Compounds with the oxidation number +1, +3, +4, +5, and +7 all contain covalent bonds.

Production and also use

The chief commercial resource of bromine is ocean water, native which the aspect is extracted by means of chemical displacement (oxidation) by chlorine in the presence of sulfuric acid with the reaction

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The product of the reaction is a dilute systems of bromine, indigenous which the aspect is gotten rid of by blow air through it. The free bromine is then blended with sulfur dioxide, and the blended gases space passed increase a tower under which water is trickling. The following reaction takes place in the tower:

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resulting in a mixture of acids that is much richer in bromide ion 보다 seawater. A second treatment through chlorine liberates bromine, which is freed from chlorine and purified by passage over moist iron filings.

Commercial bromine generally contains up come 0.3 percent chlorine. The is commonly stored in glass bottles or in barrels coated with lead or Monel metal.

The industrial usage of bromine had been overcame by the compound ethylene bromide (C2H4Br2), which once was included to gasoline with tetraethyl lead to prevent deposition of command in the engine. Due to the fact that the renunciation the leaded gasoline, bromine compounds have actually mainly been supplied in flame retardants, but ethylene bromide is still an important compound since of its usage to damage nematodes and other pests in soils. Bromine is likewise used in the production of catalysts, such together aluminum bromide.

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Bromine has actually other uses, as in making various dyes and also the link tetrabromoethane (C2H2Br4) and bromoform (CHBr3), which are offered as liquids in gauges because of your high details gravity. Till the development of barbiturates in the beforehand 20th century, bromides that potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, lithium, and also ammonium were used widely in medicine due to the fact that of their sedative action. Silver bromide (AgBr), an important component of photographic film, is, favor silver chloride and iodide, light sensitive. Traces that potassium bromate (KBrO3) are included to wheat flour to improve baking. Other bromine compounds of significance encompass hydrogen bromide (HBr), a colourless gas provided as a to reduce agent and a catalyst in essential reactions. A systems of the gas in water is referred to as hydrobromic acid, a solid acid that resembles hydrochloric mountain in its task toward metals and their oxides and hydroxides.