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1. (p. 395) The president”s constitutional roles, such as chief executive and commander in chief,
A. are based on very precise constitutional grants of power.
B. are rooted in tradition only; they have no basis in the language of the Constitution.
C. are not subject to check by Congress.
D. have expanded in practice to be more powerful than the writers of the Constitution intended.
E. are absolute powers under the Constitution.
2. (p. 393) Congress has formally declared war ________ times in U.S. history. A. 2 B. 5 C. 55 D. 200 E. 6,500
3. (p. 396) The Whig theory holds that the presidency A. is a shared office where the president and the cabinet are equally powerful. B. is a limited office whose occupant is confined to the exercise of expressly granted constitutional powers. C. is the office most representative of the people. D. should provide strong leadership in the area of foreign policy but not in domestic policy. E. is subordinate to the Supreme Court.
4. (p. 398) The president”s role in foreign policy increased largely because A. Congress proved so inept in foreign affairs that the American people demanded a change. B. America became more of a world power. C. of the need to coordinate national economic policy and foreign policy, a task to which the presidency was well suited. D. of the desire of U.S. business to expand into Latin America and Asia, which required executive action at the highest level. E. of attitudes held by the American public.
5. (p. 410) Which of the following is true of the vice presidency? A. Presidents in the nineteenth century paid more attention to their vice presidents and granted them more authority. B. The Constitution assigns no executive authority to the vice president. C. Jimmy Carter reduced the power of the vice presidency by removing the vice president”s office from the White House. D. The constitutional powers of the vice presidency have been increased by Congress twice during U.S. history. E. Daniel Webster and Henry Clay accepted nominations to the vice presidency as stepping stones to the presidency.
6. (p. 400) The primary election as a means of choosing presidential nominees A. was introduced during the Jacksonian era. B. is used in Europe as well as in the United States. C. has been used more extensively in recent decades, such that the candidate who dominates the primaries can usually expect to receive the nomination. D. is designed to strengthen the political parties. E. was introduced during the Cleveland era.
7. (p. 401) Candidate strategy in the early presidential nominating contests (such as New Hampshire”s primary) is designed chiefly to gain A. momentum. B. the support of the party”s organizational leaders. C. the support of the party”s congressional leaders. D. the endorsement of the mass media. E. the support of partisan rivals.
8. (p. 403) The selection of the vice presidential nominee at the national convention is based on the A. results of the primaries and caucuses; the candidate who places second in these contests is nominated as the running mate of the candidate who finishes first. B. convention delegates” judgment as to the candidate who would make the best vice president. C. results of public opinion polls taken just before the convention begins. D. presidential nominee”s choice of a running mate. E. None of these answers is correct.
9. (p. 390, 413-415) President Obama”s failure in his early months in office to enact policies to combat global warming, despite his determination to do so, is reflective primarily of A. the two-presidency problem. B. fear of impeachment. C. blocking by Congress. D. lack of sufficient executive authority. E. poor circumstance related to the economy.
10. (p. 410) The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in ________. A. 1789 B. 1804 C. 1865 D. 1888 E. 1939
11. (p. 411) The presidential advisory unit that, as a whole, has declined significantly as an advisory resource for the president in the twentieth century is the A. Council of Economic Advisers. B. Office of Management and Budget. C. White House Office. D. National Security Council. E. the Cabinet (as a whole).
12. (p. 393) Which of the following did the framers want from a president? A. national leadership B. administration of the laws C. statesmanship in foreign affairsD. command of the military E. All these answers are correct.
13. (p. 393) The presidency was created by Article ________ of the U.S. Constitution. A. I B. II C. III D. IV E. VII
14. (p. 405) According to the U.S. Constitution, if no one candidate receives a majority vote of the Electoral College, who chooses the president? A. the U.S. Senate B. the U.S. House of Representatives C. both the Senate and House in joint session D. the Supreme Court E. the people, in a runoff election
15. (p. 400) Under which president did the Electoral College selection process change to a popular vote? A. George Washington B. Thomas Jefferson C. James Madison D. Andrew Jackson E. Martin Van Buren
16. (p. 405) Which of the following presidents failed to win an electoral majority, but still won the presidency by decision of the House of Representatives? A. John Quincy Adams B. Rutherford B. Hayes C. Benjamin Harrison D. George W. Bush E. All these answers are correct.
17. (p. 400) After which party convention did the Democrats force major changes in the presidential nominating process? A. 1948 B. 1960 C. 1968 D. 1984 E. 1992
18. (p. 406) Which of the following states gives one Electoral College vote to the winner of each congressional district and two Electoral College votes to the statewide winner? A. Texas B. Maine C. New York D. New Hampshire E. Iowa
19. (p. 408) Which one of the following did NOT serve as a state governor prior to being president? A. Ronald Reagan B. Bill Clinton C. John Kennedy D. George W. Bush E. Jimmy Carter
20. (p. 410) Which of the following is part of the Executive Office of the President? A. Office of Management and Budget B. National Economic Council C. National Security Council D. Office of Legislative Affairs E. All these answers are correct.
21. (p. 407-408) Which of the following is a formal constitutional requirement for becoming president? A. must be at least 40 years of age B. must be a resident in the United States for at least 10 years C. must be a natural-born citizen D. must be a white male E. must be a Protestant
22. (p. 403) Which of the following is NOT true of the 2004 presidential election? A. Howard Dean did not accept federal matching funds in the primaries. B. John Kerry accepted federal matching funds in the primaries. C. George W. Bush did not accept federal matching funds in the primaries. D. None of the three candidates (Dean, Kerry, and Bush) accepted federal matching funds in the primaries. E. None of these answers is correct.
23. (p. 405) Whereas today candidates rely on the media, previously they based their campaigns on the A. work of grass-roots organizers. B. party organizations. C. mass mailing of campaign literature. D. staging of personal appearances. E. efforts of friendly civilian and corporate group efforts.
24. (p. 418) Which of the following is true of the president”s veto power? A. Presidents are limited in their use of the veto on legislation directly affecting national security or economic policy.
B. The threat of a veto has never proven to be enough to make Congress bend to the president”s demands.
C. Congress can usually muster the two-thirds majority in each chamber required to override a presidential veto.
D. The veto is as much a sign of presidential weakness as of strength, because it arises when Congress refuses to accept the president”s ideas.
E. President Bush used the veto less and less during the course of his presidency so as not to cause his popularity to fall.
25. (p. 396-398) Which of the following is a reason that the nation did not routinely need a strong president during most of the nineteenth century? A. the small policymaking role of the federal government B. the sectional nature of the nation”s major issues C. the U.S. government”s small role in world affairs D. all of these factors: the small policymaking role of the federal government; the sectional nature of the nation”s major issues; and the U.S. government”s small role in world affairs E. None of these answers is correct.
26. (p. 404) Which of the following happened in the presidential election of 2000? A. George W. Bush won the popular vote. B. Ralph Nader won Florida by 537 votes. C. Al Gore won a slim majority of votes in the Electoral College. D. Al Gore received 550,000 more votes nationally than Ralph Nader. E. Ralph Nader received 3 percent of the popular vote.
27. (p. 422) Which of the following was a provision of the War Powers Act? A. It prohibits the president from sending troops into combat. B. It requires hostilities to end within sixty days unless Congress extends the period. C. It requires Congress to consult with the president whenever feasible before passing measures that will restrict president-ordered military action. D. It requires the president to inform Congress within one month of the reason for the military action. E. It removes from Congress the power to restrict the timing or size of president-initiated military actions.
28. (p. 390) The presidency is an A. extraordinarily strong office with sufficient powers to enable the president to control national policy under virtually all circumstances. B. inherently weak office, in that presidents have almost no capacity to influence the major directions of national policy. C. office in which power is conditional, depending on whether the political support that gives force to presidential leadership exists or can be developed. D. office where power depends almost entirely on its occupant; strong leaders are always successful presidents, and weak ones never succeed. E. office where power is fairly constant, regardless of the occupant or the circumstances.
29. (p. 390) A president”s accomplishments have largely depended on A. the margin of victory in the presidential campaign. B. whether circumstances favor strong presidential leadership. C. the president”s ability to come up with good ideas. D. the president”s skill at balancing the demands of competing groups. E. mid-term elections.
30. (p. 416) The honeymoon period occurs during A. a president”s second term only. B. the first part of a president”s term. C. the period of a president”s term immediately following a successful foreign policy initiative. D. the period of a president”s term immediately following a successful domestic policy initiative. E. the State of the Union address.
31. (p. 416) Political scientist Aaron Wildavsky”s “two presidencies” thesis holds that a president is likely to be most successful with Congress on policy initiatives involving A. social welfare policy. B. foreign policy. C. tax policy. D. economic policy. E. environmental policy.
32. (p. 421) The War Powers Act was enacted in order to A. guide the military in its use of force in field situations where it is impractical to seek direction from the president. B. allow the president more leeway in committing U.S. troops to combat. C. define the relationship between the United States and its allies. D. limit the president”s war-making power. E. weaken Congress in foreign policy matters.
33. (p. 421) The forced removal of a president from office through impeachment and conviction requires action by the A. House of Representatives only. B. Senate only. C. House and Senate in a joint session. D. House and Senate in separate proceedings. E. Supreme Court in a judicial proceeding.
34. (p. 427) Which of the following describes what political scientist Hugh Heclo calls “the illusion of presidential government”? A. the inability of the president to influence the legislative priorities of Congress, even though the party in power pays lip-service to the president”s agenda B. the presidential image-building through public relations that contributes to the idea that the president is in charge of the national government C. the belief by the public that Congress should follow the presidential agenda, regardless of whether or not the majority part is the same party of the president D. the image-building that the president”s foreign policy strength lends to the rest of his agenda E. the image strength lent by the sheer size of the executive establishment, even though the president has little direct control over most of it
35. (p. 426-427) A president”s policy initiatives are significantly more successful when the president A. has the strong support of the American people. B. is a former member of Congress. C. is on good terms with other world leaders. D. is in office when the economy goes bad, which creates a demand for stronger leadership. E. None of these answers is correct.
36. (p. 393) What did Alexander Hamilton argue about war in Federalist No. 69? A. Congress is the only body with enough deliberative powers to be able to justly declare war. B. War under any circumstances is unjust, even in self-defense. C. A president should be allowed to declare war, because only the executive can react quickly enough. D. A surprise attack on the United States is the only justification for war by presidential action. E. Building a strong military for engagement in foreign wars would be a key ingredient to establishing executive authority.
37. (p. 405) The U.S. House of Representatives last decided the outcome of a presidential election in ________. A. 1928 B. 1892 C. 1856 D. 1824 E. 1800
38. (p. 420) During 2006, the year before Democrats took back control of Congress, George W. Bush A. broke most of his campaign promises. B. enjoyed Republican majorities in both houses of Congress. C. had a congressional success rate of more than 80 percent. D. had a 37 percent success rate with Congress. E. None of these answers is correct.
39. (p. 420) Congress authorized an official impeachment investigation of A. Andrew Johnson. B. John Quincy Adams. C. Theodore Roosevelt. D. Warren Harding. E. Calvin Coolidge.
40. (p. 426) In the modern era, the equivalent practice of using the presidency as a bully pulpit (Theodore Roosevelt) could best be summed up in the phrase, “________”. A. going public B. spin control C. air wars D. lobbying the bureaucracy E. manipulating the media
41. (p. 426) ________ was known as the “Great Communicator”. A. Ronald Reagan B. George H. W. Bush C. Jimmy Carter D. Lyndon Johnson E. George W. Bush
42. (p. 420) How many presidents have been impeached in U.S. history? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4
43. (p. 394) What did the Supreme Court rule about executive agreements in 1937? A. They are legally binding in the same way that treaties are. B. They can only be issued in matters of national security. C. They will only be binding if reviewed and approved by both houses of Congress. D. They can only be made with the approval of a president”s entire cabinet. E. They were ruled unconstitutional and are no longer used by the executive.
44. (p. 396) How did Theodore Roosevelt change the conception of the presidency? A. He altered the stewardship theory to reduce the power of the presidency while remaining an activist president. B. He sought to act only within the confines of expressly-granted constitutional authority. C. He rejected the idea of the “strong presidency”. D. He cast aside the stewardship theory in favor of the Whig theory. E. He cast aside the Whig theory in favor of the stewardship theory.
45. (p. 400) What aspect of presidential election did Andrew Jackson try but fail to achieve? A. elimination of the Electoral College B. elimination of candidate selection by primary C. elimination of the unit rule D. the equalization of Electoral College votes, eliminating population as a factor E. an increase in the number of presidential candidates per party
46. (p. 416) A president is likely to propose the most new programs A. during his or her first year in office. B. after reelection to a second term. C. immediately after Congress enacts a major presidential initiative. D. when international conditions are stable. E. during his or her last year in office.
47. (p. 405) States that apply the unit rule A. grant all their electoral votes as a unit to the candidate who wins the state”s popular vote. B. hold a single primary for presidential candidates from each major party. C. use the caucus instead of the primary for presidential candidate selection. D. do not use the Electoral College system. E. are not considered to be states in which there is a competitive race between candidates.
48. (p. 405) If the U.S. House of Representatives chooses to impeach a president, who conducts the trial? A. the U.S. Supreme Court B. the U.S. House of Representatives C. the U.S. Senate D. the Federal Bureau of Investigation E. the Department of Justice
49. (p. 405) The only two states that are exceptions to the unit rule are A. Michigan and Montana. B. New Hampshire and Vermont. C. Maine and Nebraska. D. Georgia and Louisiana. E. Rhode Island and Oregon.