l>BIL 226 - class TwoDO NOT print THIS PAGE. Click right here for your print-friendly copy. The Molecules the Make plant Cells...DifferentBy now, you must be very familiar with the four basic types of y2kcenter.orglogical macromolecules, their subunits, and their functions. Recall... Nucleic acids, polymers that nucleotides (A, T, C, G, U) proteins, polymers of amino acids (22 flavors!) carbohydrates, polymers of sugars (monosaccharides or disaccharides) lipids, polymers of fatty acids Recall the a polymer is a lengthy chain that repeating subunits that space (more or less) identical.NUCLEIC ACIDSEveryone here has actually had very first year y2kcenter.orglogy, and also so should have actually a an easy understanding of just how DNA and also RNA work. But in instance you\"ve forgotten, here is a very brief and also extremely straightforward baby synopsis of genetics.The an easy structure and duty of DNA is conservative throughout taxa, and is among the many unifying characters of life on earth. Over there is nothing considerably different around plant DNA, contrasted to that of various other taxa, various other than the instructions encoded in plant DNA.As in animals, ATP (and GTP)--components of main point acids, when in polymer form--are the \"energy currency\" the the cell. Their high-energy phosphate bonds yield 7.3kcal/mole, upon hydrolysis.

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PROTEINSIn many organisms, protein comprises much more than 50% of the y2kcenter.orgmass the the individual. In plants, however, cellulose makes up the bulk of the organism, with protein comes in a distant second.Like various other organisms, tree use around 20 various kinds the amino mountain to construct their distinct proteins, but there is nothing considerably different about plant proteins compared with those of other organisms. Lock are created the exact same way, with different proteins having actually characteristic framework primary structure (order of the amino acids) an additional structure (pleating and helix formation) tertiary framework (folding of pleated sheets and also helices right into 3-D structures) quaternary framework (multiple polypeptides an unified to kind a practical unit)
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As in various other organisms, protein in plants may be structural (often helical or pleated sheets), or functional (enzymes, usually with complex tertiary or quaternary structure).(What is one essential amino acid? What room the necessary amino acids because that Homo sapiens? (lys, trp, thr, met, his, phe, leu, val, ileu) and also where carry out we get them? perform plants require any kind of essential amino acids?)CARBOHYDRATESIn animals, carbohydrates room used primarily for short-term energy storage.In plants, however, carbohydrates space not only offered for energy storage, but also make up the key structure the the organism itself. An easy Carbohydrates (Sugars)The three most abundant straightforward sugars synthesized by plants room glucose - the major sugar offered for energy in moving respiration. (In animals and many various other organisms, it\"s likewise the primary transport sugar moved about via the blood present or other transport systems in the body--but not in plants!) sucrose - the a major transport sugar in plants, is intimately connected with water movement through phloem (as we\"ll see later). fructose - one more storage sugar, mostly sequestered in aqueous solution as polysaccharides dubbed fructans
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The most basic carbohydrates are monosaccharides, i beg your pardon consist that a single carbon ring. Next up space the disaccharides, consist of of 2 carbon rings. Recall also that some molecules may have actually the same chemical formula yet different physical plan of the atom components, and also are isomers the one another. (For example, glucose and also fructose space isomers that one another. Sucrose, the many common type of street transported by plants, is a disaccharide written of glucose and fructose.)Monosaccharides are fairly stable, extremely water-soluble, and are thus great candidates for physical structure, transport and also energy storage.Complex CarbohydratesChains of sugar molecules may be manufactred by the plant, and also these are recognized as polysaccharides. Brief chain polysaccharides are recognized as oligosaccharides (oligos is Greek for \"short\".). To produce of sugar polymers requires the removed of one -OH indigenous one sugar and also an H from the other, which join to kind a molecule the water. The reaction is therefore a dehydration reaction. To rest the link of a polysaccharide, water need to be added back and also joined to the resulting monomers in their original kind (an -OH ~ above one molecule and an -H top top the other), a process you every recall together hydrolysis (literally, \"splitting with water\").Starch is among the defining y2kcenter.orglogical macromolecules of Plantae and its closestly relatives. Starch, a polymer the glucose, come in two forms: amylose (unbranched chain of glucose) amylopectin (branched glucose chains) (similar come glycogen, yet not together branched)...and is used for long-term energy storage, sequestered as starch granules within plant cells. Strength granules may play various other roles as well, together we\"ll see.
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The enzyme responsible for strength synthesis is well-known as starch synthetase. It joins the C-1 that one glucose to the C-4 the the next to form an alpha-1,2 glycosidic bond.Fructans are an additional storage polysaccharide, yet these are composed of primarily of fructose. After ~ starch and also sucrose, fructans are probably the many abundant storage carbohydrates in plants. Synthesized indigenous fructose and also sucrose in the tree vacuoles, fructans may be straight or branched, through a basic trisaccharide structure recognized as a kestose(fructose and sucrose polymer):
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Because fructans space water soluble, they can be stored in much greater concentrations 보다 starches, which room stored as relatively voluminous granules.Our girlfriend CELLULOSE is the many abundant organic molecule ~ above the planet.
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Cellulose is found in the kind of microfibrils that make up the main structural molecule of the plant cell wall.
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Like starch, cellulose is a polymer the glucose. Yet a subtle change in chemistry structure changes it from extremely digestible nutrient into The Perfect Structural product for plants.You may recall from various other courses the glucose can exist in 2 structural forms, alpha (on the left) and beta (on the right):
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In aqueous equipment in the plant cell, these two develops flip ago and forth, and stay in equilibrium, about 50:50. Yet when the glucose molecules join to type polymers, there deserve to be much more of one type or the other. Starch (and glycogen, \"animal starch\") are composed completely of alpha-glucose. Cellulose is composed completely of beta-glucose. That is built by a different set of enzymes (cellulose synthases
), which develops beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds between the ingredient glucose monomers.The cradle enzymes qualified of breaking down chains that alpha glucose--found in the vast majority of heterotrophs--do not acknowledge nor bind to beta-glucose chains. Only a couple of types of biology can create enzymes qualified of digesting the beta-glucose chain the is cellulose. (Can girlfriend name several of them?)Think that the evolutionary ramifications of the tiny shift that occurred when one enzyme showed up that connected beta-glucoses together, instead of alpha-glucoses. And also then think of just how rare the mutation that allowed any biology to break the mighty chain!LIPIDSThese room molecules composed mainly of solitary or branched fatty mountain chains.
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Fats are nonpolar and hydrophobic, and also thus room neither soluble no one miscible in water. cutins - polymers of quick fatty acids; this are distinct to plants waxes - polymers of long fatty mountain triglycerides - 3 fatty acid chains bound come a solitary molecule that glycerol
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phospholipids - two fatty mountain chains boun to a solitary molecule that glycerol and also a phosphate group
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Lipids serve structural roles in cabinet membranes (e.g., phospholipids), and also are additionally important football player in plant metabolism. Lipids might be... Fats (solid in ~ room temperature) or oils (liquid at room temperature) saturated (no dual bonds in between the carbons in the chain) unsaturated (one come many dual bonds (and hence, fewer hydrogens) between the C\"s) offered for high-energy, irreversible storage (fat yields 9.1kcal/g as soon as oxidized, as opposed come 3.8kcal/g that carbohydrate or 3.1kcal/g that protein!) essential in the style of tree cells and bodies, making tree resistant to desiccation, and also facilitating water (and nutrient) transport.Structural Lipids1. PhospholipidsAs in every eukaryotes, phospholipids are a significant structural component of plant cell membranes.
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2. Waxes and also Cutins
Plant epidermal cell secrete fatty acids, which polymerize upon exposure to O2 to kind cutins and waxes. These might branch and cross-link, forming complex, hydrophobic, 3-D blobs that aid retain water inside the plant, stop undesired entry of water and also protect the plant versus invading fungal pathogens. The protective great is known as the cuticle, written of cutin impregnated with wax (cuticular wax). The cuticle stays clear of water loss with the epidermal cells, but also necessitates the visibility of stomates, gas-exchange pores, in terrestrial plants through a thick cuticle.
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Cutins and also waxes room also significant structural contents of cell walls in higher, terrestrial plants. Cutin and waxes form matrices around plant cells, and the facility fatty barrier effectively stays clear of water from travel through any type of such barrier.SuberinA special type of wax, well-known as suberin is specifically important in the cells of the outermost great of woody plant bark, known as cork. Every plants that produce true, botanical wood produce a class of cork, i m sorry is largely impervious come water and also gases. (The cork of the Cork Oak, Quercus suber, is offered to make wine corks for this really reason; it\"s indigenous this plant that suberin gets its name.)As we\"ll check out later, suberin additionally plays a an important role in the root\"s capability to selectively permit only particular substances right into the plant. The cork (outermost great of the bark of woody tree is the main ar you\"ll find suberin. It\"s arranged in layers alternate with wax to prevent water loss from woody stems that no longer have an epidermal layer.
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We\"ll additionally find the suberin theatre a very important duty in the move of water with the source cortex, avoiding interstitial entry of water right into the root, and also hence, developing a selectively-permeable membrane right into the source in a layer dubbed the endodermis.
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Plant Compounds and also Homo sapiensVarious types of tree manufacture waxes distinctive to your taxa, and also many space of advertising importance. Carnauba wax, supplied as a polish for everything from cars to floorsis extracted from the pipeline of the Carnauba Wax Palm (Copernicia cerifera) that the Amazon. (So long, car polish...)Steroids room lipids whose simple structure is that of four associated hydrocarbon rings. Functional groups attached come this straightforward steroid backbone determine the role of the countless different steroids found in living organisms. A hydroxyl team in the carbon-3 position makes the steroid a sterol (an alcohol; remember?). These duty to stabilize plasma membranes. Sitosterol is the main form found in plants and their closestly relatives, green algae:
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Cholesterol, the key plasma-membrane stability sterol in animal cells is fairly rare in plants:
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Steroids likewise may function as hormones, or be hormone precursors. The discovery of estrogen- and progesterone-like link in plants has spawned a new area the y2kcenter.orgmedical research, not just in cancer treatment, but also in the treatment of symptoms connected with menopause.More organic Compounds

Plants produce a huge, varied assemblage of essential compounds such together those over as fine as many others. Essential compounds might be produced by tree to offer as pigments fragrances hormones protective compounds (poisons; venoms)All this are derived from that solitary product of photosynthesis: 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (p-gal). Hence, a plant requirements only CO2, H2O, sunlight and also some floor minerals (macro- and micronutrients) in order come survive and thrive. A tree is the finish autotroph.Plants respire, the course, just as animals and other heterotrophs do. However heterotrophs depend on autotrophs because that life, and could not make it through without them. Plants produce the essential nutrients required by heterotrophs to serve as coenzymes, cofactors, etc.VitaminsPlants create all the vitamin they have to serve as enzymatic cofactors. Animals, however, one of two people never had the metabolic capability to produce these things, or have lost them via mutations. Together mutations would be lethal in a plant, yet an pet can survive (or even benefit) from such a genetic readjust as lengthy as it can eat plants to administer the lost nutrient. Humans and other primates cannot produce Vitamin C (though many pets can). Hence, we experience from scurvy (bleeding gums, share swelling and also pain, weight loss, etc.) if deprived that our vital ascorbic acid.The one nutrient necessary by pets that plants execute not manufacture is cholesterol. Herbivores must be able to metabolically manufacture cholesterol, whereas carnivores can attain it by eating herbivores. The farther increase the food chain an pet is, the much less deleterious is could be to lose a nutrient\"s artificial pathway, due to the fact that the organism\"s prey (or host) will certainly likely carry out the essential nutrients.It\"s a fragile balance in between saving power via loss of synthetic pathways versus the threat of nutrient deficiency in a nutrient-poor environment.

Secondary Metabolites: tree Defense

Plants are literally rooted come the spot. They can\"t flee predators/herbivores. But that certainly doesn\"t median they are defenseless. Plants space masters that chemical warfare.Metabolites are just what the surname implies: compounds do via metabolic reactions. Primary metabolites are those found in all cells, and also are vital for common cellular role and power transduction. They include the y2kcenter.orglgical macromolecules and simple sugars.Secondary metabolites are complex chemical link that space NOT discovered in every cell, and not uncovered in every types of plant. As soon as thought to be waste assets of metabolism, they space now recognize to be vital for plenty of plant functions, including analog to animal neurotransmitters (albeit a many slower) organic antiy2kcenter.orgtics (meant to benefit the plant!) herbivore deterrents allelopathic compounds pollinator attractants seed-disperser attractants protection from harmful UV radiationLike pet hormones, plant an additional metabolites space usually developed in a particular location that the plant, and then transported for storage (usually in vacuoles) come another component of the plant.The compounds often follow a Circadian rhythm, v concentration differing in a diurnal cycle, or seasonally, or even with environmental influence, depending upon the plant creating it and the particular compound being produced.Three major types of secondary metabolites: alkaloids terpenoids phenolicsAlkaloidsThese are created by plants primarily as a way to deter herbivores, and, as one can expect from such a compound, castle mimic several of the naturally developing compounds in animals and compete for the very same receptors in animal cells.The very first alkaloid formally described from a plant to be morphine from the opium poppy. Despite it was described in 1806, it had actually been offered by civilization as a painkiller and also as a recreational medicine for centuries before Western scientists determined what it was. Many fabricated opioids are now in production by pharmaceutical suppliers that have actually taken the an easy formula of morphine and adjusted it to reduce some of its more harmful effects.Cocaine is an additional well-known alkaloid through pharmaceutical use. It, too, has been modified and now artificial derivatives serve as local anesthetics (lidocaine, marcaine, etc.).Caffeine is created by number of different varieties of plants, generally in the family members Rubiaceae (coffee, tea, Cacao). In nature, the inhibits the growth of adjacent seedlings, staying clear of competition for floor resources. This impact is recognized as allelopathy.Theophyllines are similar stimulants produced by tea plants, and also are even much more powerful stimulants the caffeine. But due to the fact that they are generally found in reduced concentration in leaves 보다 caffeine, most people are not conscious of their effects. (But once you drink a cup that tea...)Nicotine is another stimulant supposed to deter herbivores. What\"s v us humans, anyway?Atropine is discovered in a variety of different plants. One local source is the Angel\"s Trumpet, which also produces part other an extremely deadly alkaloids.If you\"ve ever before been to the ophthalmologist and also had her pupils dilated, you\"ve had the pleasure of atropine. Though it\"s currently used medicinally, it was once used as a...beauty aid! (See what girlfriend missed if you didn\"t come to class?) (Our girlfriend Atropa belladona...)Terpenoids/TerpenesThe most common second metabolites in plants, over there are more than 22,000 described!Terpenes might serve together photosynthetic accessory pigments (carotenoids), hormone (giberellins, abscisic acid), plasma membrane contents (sterols), or electron transport molecules (ubiquinone, plastoquinone), i m sorry we\"ll comment on as they come up.The simple subunit of terpene is isoprene (C5H8), and also other terpenoids room classified through the number of isoprene subunits castle contain.Isoprene chin is produced in large quantities by plants, particularly on hot days. The Smoky mountains were \"smoggy\" long before the car arrived: isoprene is a major component that smog in forested areas, wherein plants develop it to stabilize plasma membrane in photosynthetic cells and thylakoids as soon as it\"s an extremely hot.Common terpene include: monoterpenoids (two isoprene subunits plus practical groups) sesquiterpenoids (three isoprene subunits plus practical groups) diterpenoids (four isoprene subunits plus practical groups)Essential oils room usually mono- or sesquiterpenoids that develop the aroma that plants usage to attract pollinators, deter herbivores, death fungi or bacteria, or inhibit the expansion of completing plants.What space some examples?Are all essential oils NICE?Taxol has actually gotten significant press as a potential anti-cancer agent. That was very first discovered in the rarely Pacific Yew Tree (Taxus brevifolia), but similar compounds have now been isolated indigenous other, much less endangered yew species. Artificial versions have since been made in the lab, offering hope because that cancer patients and also for the conservation of the yew trees.Rubber is a huge terpene, consist of of hundreds or hundreds of isoprene units. It starts out as milky latex and is processed right into the flexible, bouncy substance v so countless commercial uses and also applications.Cardiac glycosides induce heart strike in huge concentrations (as in when eaten by one unsuspecting herbivore noshing ~ above Foxglove or other cardiac glycoside-producing plants). However modified and also taken in tiny quantities, these compounds have the right to actually slow and also strengthen the heartbeat. Many of the most toxic plant families (e.g., Asclepiaceae (milkweeds), Apocynaceae (dogbane)) create cardiac glycosides. Cardiac glcosides taste NASTY, and are vital in the aposematic security of butterflies the feed top top milkweeds together larvae.A tale of an unfortunate BluejayPhenolic CompoundsIf you\"ve bring away organic chemistry, climate you understand that a phenol is just an fragrant carbon ring through a hydroxyl group attached. However plants execute know exactly how to use a phenol! If just we can figure the end what they\"re doing with them.Phenolics are discovered in almost all tree cells, and the role of countless is not well understood. Many are pigments, such together flavonoids, the many recently renowned of i m sorry is resveratrol, discovered in red grapes (and red wine). This compound not just is report to lower serum cholesterol levels (mechanims no known), but also is an estrogen mimic that may be useful in dealing with breast cancer.Anthocyanins space phenolic pigments varying in shade from dark red to purple. Flavones and also flavonols space pale ivory-colored pigments the may convert to sugar as soon as temperatures are really cold.Different flavonoids are provided by tree to attract micorhizzal fungi, or bacter symy2kcenter.orgnts to collection up a mutualistic relationship.Tannins room bitter-tasting phenolic compounds to work by flower woody plants together defense versus herbivores. These are uncovered in high concentrations in wood, and also the external layers of unripe fruit (why?).And together their name implies, this compounds deserve to be supplied to denature protein and also \"tan\" pet hides.Salycilate is ours friend. An initial discovered in willow bark (Salix sp.for i m sorry the compound is named), this is the energetic ingredient in aspirin. Yet did the willow tree kindly do aspirin because that US?Salycilate is critical to the plant for SAR: Systemic acquired Resistance, a sort of plant immune response seen in many flowering plants (Anthophyta). As soon as the tree is injured by bacteria or mushroom in one area of the plant, salycilates are affiliated in a complex chemical cascade that enables the bordering tissues the the plant and the remainder of its human body to later on resist strike by the exact same and comparable pathogens!The activation that the SAR response requires accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid, which is triggered by the existence of a pathogen. In the best-studied model device of the SAR response is recognized from wall Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). In this plant, the high concentration that salicylic acid activates a molecule signal transduction pathway that is determined by a gene referred to as nim1 (also well-known as npr1 or sai1). The pathway results in heightened immunity to all pathogens in uninfected parts of the plant.Plant toxins have affinity for existing receptors in animals. Anticholinergic compounds - some plants create molecules that space chemically similar enough to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine that they tie to receptors on nerve cells supposed for that compound. The result: the action of acetylcholine is blocked, with perhaps deadly effect. (Examples: Atropa, deadly Nightshade (produces atropine) and Datura, Jimsonweed).) Nicotine-like alkaloids - specific alkaloids bind to acetylcholine receptor in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, brain, and neuromuscular junctions, impede function. (Examples: Conium, toxicity Hemlock, Nicotiana and also others.) Convulsants - these tie to engine neurons, resulting in hyperexcitability and also spasms. (Example: Strychnos, i beg your pardon produces strychnine.) Capsaicin - Our girlfriend the Chili Pepper. This warm number is fat dissolve (rinsing your mouth with water won\"t help.), and also has anti-microbial properties. Cardioactive compounds - Digitoxin and digoxin from Digitalis, Foxglove, inhibit protein that power the sodium/potassium pumps of cabinet membranes. Too much, and you\"re dead. But used at medicinal levels, these have the right to actually slow and also strengthen the heartbeat through concentrating calcium in cells whose Ca+ levels space too low. Cyanogenic glycosides - pet digestive enzyme cleave these right into (1) sugar (no problem) and (2) cyanide (big problem). Cyanide inhibits the last action of the Krebs Cycle, avoiding production that ATP. (Example: uncovered in the seed of plenty of plants in the Rose household (Rosaceae), such together Malus (apples) and Prunus (peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, etc.) ) Mitotic inhibitors - inhibit cell department by impede normal function of tubulin in constructing brand-new cytoskeletal materials, or by various other means. (Examples: Colchium autumnale, the loss Crocus produce colchicine, i beg your pardon inhibits microtubule formation. Catharanthus (was: Vinca) rosea, the Madagascar Periwinkle consists of alkaloids vinblastine (blocks spindle fiber formation) and also vincristine (blocks microtubule formation), i beg your pardon inhibit cabinet division. (Scientists in ~ Eli Lilly, Inc. Emerged this right into the most typical drug supplied to law childhood leukemia).) Toxalbumins - inhibit ribosomes function. (Example: Ricinus communis, the Castor bean is the source of ricin, one of th e most toxic substances known. (eight beans can kill one adult) The common ornamental, Jatropha, the Coral Bean has actually an even greater concentration: one seed can kill.))Chemical pathways that bring about production of toxicity compounds are adaptive, and also mutations that an outcome in together pathways may cause those mutant individuals leaving more offspring then your tastier conspecifics. But does it constantly work? not if you have actually a clever herbivore who has evolved habits that make your poisons ineffective!LigninLignin is the 2nd most numerous of all organic molecules, and also it is localized in plant cabinet walls. Lignin forms a polymer comprised of three big alcohol subunits (coumaryl (primarily in flower plants), coniferyl (primarily in gymnosperms), and also sinapyl (primarily in grasses)), and also the structure of lignins varies widely with species.
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Lignin offers compressional strength to the cell wall, unequal the flexible toughness conferred by cellulose. There is no lignin, terrestrial plants probably might not have reached the sizes they do today, as cellulose go not carry out enough resistance to gravity itself.Waterproof, lignin is also useful in directing water flow through the xylem, together the to move subunits of xylem are rich in lignin.Lignin, Cellulose, Fungi, and Wood RotLignin is practically indestructible. Over there are practically no biology on earth (with the exception of a few types that fungi) that can failure lignins. That natural color is reddish-brown. By looking at the shade of a rotting log, you deserve to tell which kind of fungal (i.e., timber Rot degeneration Fungi) decomposer has been at work.Fungi categorized together Brown Rot mushroom feed greatly upon celluloses, and also cannot fully failure lignin. Wood damaged down by these fungi often tends to watch reddish-brown in color because of the liginin residues, and also falls personally in relatively big chunks as the network the cellulose is destroyed.
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these fungi are more common in cool, wet climates, such together the rainforests of the Pacific northwest.By contrast, fungi categorized as White Rot fungi canfully failure and use lignin (as well as cellulose and also hemicellulose polymers), so hardwood being broken down by this fungi appears greyish white (due to the cellulose residues lating longer). Wood influenced with \"white rot\" will much more gradually lose its strength, and become spongy, fairly than loss apart in blocks/cubes.

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Lignin\"s an initial role in plants may have been as a organic microbe inhibitor, and only later on was that sequestered for various other uses.Unfortunately, it\"s not a nice compound once extracted throughout the manfacture of lumber pulp, as it breaks down into toxic aromatic compounds that are dumped into surrounding water. A file mill is no a great neighbor.