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Magnetism is the force exerted through magnets once they tempt or repel each other. Magnetism is brought about by the movement of electric charges.Every substance is made up of small units called atoms. Each atom has electrons, particles that carry electric charges. Spinning favor tops, the electron circle the nucleus, or core, of an atom. Their movement generates an electric current and also causes every electron to act favor a microscope magnet.

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In most substances, same numbers of electron spin in the opposite directions, which cancels the end their magnetism. That is why materials such as fabric or paper are said to it is in weakly magnetic. In building material such as iron, cobalt, and also nickel, most of the electron spin in the same direction. This renders the atom in these substances strongly magnetic—but they room not however magnets.To end up being magnetized, an additional strongly magnetic problem must get in the magnetic field of an present magnet. The magnetic ar is the area around a magnet that has magnetic force. Every magnets have actually north and also south poles. Opposite poles space attracted to each other, if the exact same poles repel each other. As soon as you obstacle a piece of iron along a magnet, the north-seeking poles the the atom in the iron heat up in the very same direction. The pressure generated by the aligned atom creates a magnetic field. The piece of stole has come to be a magnet.Some substances have the right to be magnetized through an electrical current. When electrical energy runs with a coil that wire, it produces a magnetic field. The field approximately the coil will certainly disappear, however, as quickly as the electric existing is rotate off. Geomagnetic Poles

The earth is a magnet. Scientists carry out not totally understand why, however they think the motion of molten steel in the Earth’s external core generates electric currents. The currents develop a magnetic field with invisible present of pressure flowing between the Earth’s magnetic poles. The geomagnetic poles room not the same as the North and South Poles. Earth’s magnetic poles frequently move, due to activity far beneath the Earth’s surface. The shifting locations of the geomagnetic poles are videotaped in rocks that form when molten material referred to as magma wells up v the Earth’s crust and also pours out as lava. As lava cools and also becomes solid rock, strong magnetic particles in ~ the rock come to be magnetized by the Earth’s magnetic field. The particles line up follow me the present of pressure in the Earth’s field. In this way, rocks lock in a document of the place of the Earth’s geomagnetic poles at the time.

Strangely, the magnetic documents of rocks created at the very same time it seems to be ~ to suggest to various locations for the poles. According to the concept of bowl tectonics, the rocky plates that comprise the Earth’s difficult shell room constantly moving. Thus, the key on which the rocks solidified have actually moved since the rocks videotaped the position of the geomagnetic poles. This magnetic records additionally show that the geomagnetic poles have actually reversed—changed into the opposite sort of pole—hundreds the times because the planet formed.Earth’s magnetic field does no move easily or reverse often. Therefore, it have the right to be a valuable tool for helping civilization find their method around. For thousands of years, people have used magnetic compasses to navigate using Earth’s magnetic field. The magnetic needle that a compass present up through Earth’s magnetic poles. The north end of a magnet points towards the magnetic phibìc pole. Earth’s magnetic field dominates a region called the magnetosphere, which wraps around the planet and its atmosphere. Solar wind, charged particles indigenous the sun, presses the magnetosphere against the earth on the side facing the sun and stretches it right into a teardrop shape on the zero side. The magnetosphere protects the planet from most of the particles, but some leak through it and become trapped. When particles indigenous the solar wind hit atom of gas in the upper atmosphere around the geomagnetic poles, they create light displays called auroras. These auroras show up over places like Alaska, Canada and also Scandinavia, whereby they are sometimes dubbed “Northern Lights.” The “Southern Lights” deserve to be viewed in Antarctica and brand-new Zealand.


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The steel in the sand is magnetic, strongly attracted to the magnet ~ above an atom level.

Photograph through MaryLou Naccarato, MyShot


Historic DirectionsThe old Greeks and Chinese knew around naturally magnetic stones called \"lodestones.\" these chunks that iron-rich mineral may have been magnetized by lightning. The Chinese discovered that they might make a needle magnetic by stroking it versus a lodestone, and that the needle would suggest north-south.

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Animal MagnetismSome animals, such together pigeons, bees, and also salmon, have the right to detect the Earth\"s magnetic field and use it come navigate. Researchers aren\"t sure exactly how they do this, but these creatures seem to have magnetic material in your bodies that acts prefer a compass.