You are watching: Describe the function of the system clock.
Both ports are used to transmit video but a DVI port deserve to transmit digital or analog video clip while the HDMI have the right to only transmit digital video. However, the HDMI port can also transmit digital audio at the exact same time as digital video.
4. List three factors you should use matching form factors because that the motherboard strength supply, and case.
Using matching kind factors assures girlfriend that: The motherboard fits in the case. The power supply cords come the motherboard administer the correct voltage, and also the connectors complement the relations on the board. The feet in the motherboard align v the feet in the situation for anchoring the board to the case. The holes in the instance align with ports coming off the motherboard. For some type factors, wires because that switches and lights top top the prior of the case match up with relations on the motherboard. The holes in the power supply align v holes in the case for anchoring the power supply to the case.
The PATA interface, also called the principle interface, offers a vast 40-pin ribbon cable and also connector. The standard permits for only two connectors top top a motherboard for 2 data cables. Each ide ribbon cable has actually a connection at the other end for an principle drive and also a link in the middle of the cable because that a 2nd IDE drive. Utilizing this interface, a motherboard can accommodate as much as four principle or PATA drives in one system. PATA drives usage a 4-pin strength connector dubbed a Molex strength connector. A Molex connector is shame so it connects in just one direction.
Electricity deserve to be one of two people AC, alternate current, or DC, direct current. Alternative current (AC) goes back and forth, or oscillates, fairly than travel in only one direction. Voltage in the device is constantly alternate from optimistic to negative, which reasons the electrical power to flow first in one direction and then in the other. Direct current (DC) travels in just one direction and is the kind of current that many electronic devices require, including computers.
AC travels on a hot line native the power station to a building and returns come the power terminal on a neutral line. As soon as the 2 lines reach the building and also enter an electrical device, such as a lamp, the device controls the circulation of electricity between the hot and neutral lines. If an simpler path (one with less resistance) is available, the electricity follows that path. This can cause a short, a sudden increase in flow that can also create a sudden increase in temperature—enough to start a fire and also injure both people and also equipment. To prevent uncontrolled electrical power in a short, the neutral line is grounded. Grounding a line means that the line is connected directly to the earth, for this reason that, in the occasion of a short, the electricity flows into the earth and not earlier to the strength station.
The strength cord is frayed or otherwise damaged in any kind of way. Water or various other liquid is on the floor around the an equipment or flood on it. The an equipment has been exposed to excess moisture.The an equipment has been dropped or you an alert physical damage. You odor a solid electronics odor. The strength supply or fans are making a whining noise. You notification smoke comes from the computer instance or the instance feels person that is abnormal warm.
A floor bracelet, additionally called an ESD strap, antistatic wrist strap, or ESD bracelet, is a strap friend wear roughly your wrist. The strap has a cord attached v an alligator clip on the end. Connect the clip to the computer situation you"re functioning on. Any type of static electricity in between you and also the situation is now discharged. Therefore, as you occupational inside the case, you will certainly not damage the materials with static electricity. The bracelet also contains a resistor that avoids electricity from harming you.
Rule 1: as soon as passing a circuit board, memory module, or various other sensitive ingredient to an additional person, ground yourself and then touch the various other person prior to you happen the component.Rule 2: Leave materials inside their protective bags till you are prepared to use them.Rule 3: occupational on hard floors, not carpet, or use antistatic spray ~ above the carpets.Rule 4: Don"t work-related on a computer if friend or the computer system have simply come in indigenous the cold since there is more danger the ESD as soon as the atmosphere is cold and also dry.Rule 5: as soon as unpacking hardware or software, remove the packing tape and cellophane native the job-related area as soon as possible because this materials attract ESD.Rule 6: Keep components away from her hair and clothing.
Make notes together you job-related so that you have the right to backtrack later if necessary. Remove loosened jewelry that might get caught in cables and also components together you work. To continue to be organized and not lose little parts, store screws and also spacers orderly and also in one place, such as a cup or tray. Don"t stack boards on top of every other. When managing motherboards, cards, or drives, don"t touch the chips top top the device. Hold growth cards by the edges. To protect a microchip, don"t touch it with a magnetized screwdriver. Never ever touch the within of a computer system that is rotate on. Never ever remove the cover or put your hands within a screen or power supply. As you work, remember to watch out for spicy edges ~ above computer instances that can cut you. In a class environment, after you have reassembled everything, have actually your instructor examine your work before you placed the cover back on and also power up.
13. What must you perform after girlfriend unplug the computer system to be sure the power supply is fully drained?
Press and also hold down the power switch for a moment.
14. What need to you do to dissipate any kind of charge between you and also the computer?
Clip your ground bracelet to the side of the computer case.
15. What have to you do before disconnecting the wires top from the former of the computer case to the motherboard if girlfriend don"t have the motherboard manual handy?
Be really careful to diagram exactly how these wires connect because castle are never labeled fine on a motherboard.
A motherboard is mounted so the the bottom the the plank does not touch the case. If the fine traces or currently on the bottom the the plank were come touch the case, a quick would an outcome when the device is running. To store the board from emotional the case, spacers or standoffs may be used.
17. List and also describe 3 front panel connectors you will likely see going from the front panel to the motherboard.
Power SW. Controls strength to the motherboard; need to be connected for the pc to strength up HDD LED. Controls the drive activity light ~ above the former panel the lights increase when any SATA or IDE device is in use (HDD stands for hard disk drive; LED represents light-emitting diode) power LED+. Confident LED controls the power light and also indicates that strength is onPower LED-. Negative LED controls the power light; the two hopeful and an unfavorable leads indicate that strength is on Reset SW. Switch supplied to reboot the computer
The cooler sits on height of the processor and consists of a fan and also a heat sink. A warmth sink uses fins that draw heat far from the processor. The fan deserve to then blow the warm away.
Using fluid cooling, a little pump sits within the computer system case, and also tubes move liquid roughly components and also then away from them to a location where fans can cool the liquid, comparable to exactly how a car radiator works.
20. What are two significant points you should keep in mind when selecting the correct wattage capacity for a power supply?
Video cards draw the many power. Video clip cards draw the many power in a system, and also they draw from the +12 V output. If your system has a video card, pay specific attention come the +12 V rating. The trend nowadays is because that the motherboard to carry out the video components and video port, for this reason reducing the all at once wattage requirements for a system. The power supply have to be rated about 30 percent greater than intended needs. Power supplies that run at less than peak performance critical longer and also don"t overheat. In addition, a strength supply loses few of its capacity over time. Also, don"t worry around a higher rated strength supply using too much electricity. Materials only draw what lock need.
21. Explain the LGA2011 processor socket the CPUs the supports, targeted applications, and any one-of-a-kind considerations for its implementation.
Second Generation (SandyBridge) core i7 Extreme,Core i7, main point i5, main point i3,Pentium, and Celeron. 2011 pins in the socket touch 2011 soil on the processor, which supplies a flip-chip land grid selection (FCLGA).Used in luxury gaming and server computers and also might require a fluid cooling system.
A ZIF socket is a zero insertion force socket. When a processor is mounted in a socket, extreme care must it is in taken to defend the socket and also the processor against ESD and also from damage caused by bending the pins or scratching the socket holes throughout the installation. So that even force is applied when inserting the processor in the socket, all existing processor sockets have actually one or two levers on the political parties of the socket. This sockets are referred to as zero insertion pressure (ZIF) sockets
A chipset is a set of chips ~ above the motherboard that works very closely with the processor to collectively control the memory, buses ~ above the motherboard, and also some peripherals. The chipset have to be compatible through the processor that serves.
This hub has actually a fast and also slow end, and each finish is a different chip on the motherboard. The fast finish of the hub, referred to as the north Bridge, has the graphics and also memory controller, and connects straight to the processor by method of a 64-bit bus, called the Front next Bus (FSB), device bus, or host bus. The slower finish of the hub, dubbed the southern Bridge, contains the I/O controller hub (ICH). Every I/O (input/output) devices, except video, connect to the hub by making use of the slower south Bridge.
25. What are the many fine present on the top and also bottom that a motherboard"s surface? What is the function of this lines?
These lines, sometimes called traces, room circuits or paths that enable data, instructions, and also power to move from component to component on the board. This system of pathways provided for communication and also the protocol and also methods offered for infection are collectively called the bus. The components of the bus that we are most acquainted with are the currently of the bus the are supplied for data; these lines are dubbed the data bus. A bus can additionally carry electrical power (to power contents on the motherboard), regulate signals (to coordinate activity), and also memory addresses (for one regimen to tell another program wherein to discover data or instructions).
The mechanism clock or system timer,is committed to time the activities on the motherboard much like a metronome helps a musician with timing. The chipset sends out out a constant pulsating electric signal ~ above one heat of the device bus. This one mechanism clock line, dedicated to carrying the pulse, is read by other components on the motherboard (including the processor, bus slots, storage slots, and so forth) and also ensures the all activities are synchronized.
PCI refer (PCIe) offers an altogether different architectural style than traditional PCI and PCI-X; PCIe is no backward compatible with either. PCI express will ultimately replace both these buses and also the AGP bus, although that is meant PCI Express will coexist with conventional PCI for part time come come. Vice versa, PCI supplies a 32-bit or 64-bit parallel bus, PCI Express uses a serial bus, i beg your pardon is faster than a parallel bus due to the fact that it transmits data in packets similar to how an Ethernet network, USB, and also FireWire transmit data. A PCIe growth slot can provide one or more of this serial lanes. Another difference in PCI to express is exactly how it connects come the processor. One or more PCI to express slots used for video cards have actually a direct link to the North bridge or to the processor (using Sandy leg or Ivy bridge architecture). PCI Express currently comes in four different slot sizes called PCI to express ×1, ×4, ×8, and also ×16.
CMOS lamb is a convenient method to store configuration data. CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is a an approach of manufacturing microchips, and CMOS lamb is a tiny amount of storage stored on the motherboard provided to host motherboard settings. This CMOS ram retains the data also when the computer is turned off since it is fee by a nearby battery. A regime in BIOS, called BIOS setup or CMOS setup, can easily make alters to the setups stored in CMOS RAM.
29. What is the objective of the motherboard super password and how deserve to it be cleared if the is forgotten?
Most motherboards today allow you to set a supervisor password (to make changes in setup BIOS) or a power-on password (to get access to the system). Know that this passwords room not the same password that deserve to be required by a home windows OS in ~ startup. If both passwords space forgotten, you cannot usage the computer. However, jumpers can be collection to clean both passwords.
30. What is a maker driver and what is the duty of motherboard vehicle drivers when you upgrade a motherboard or download a brand-new motherboard?
Device vehicle drivers are little programs stored on the difficult drive and also installed in home windows that phone call Windows just how to interact with a details hardware maker such as a printer, network harbor on the motherboard, or scanner. The CD that comes bundled v the motherboard has a user guide and also drivers for its onboard components, and these chauffeurs need to be mounted in Windows. You can initially install the motorists from CD, and you can additionally update the drivers by downloading and install them from the motherboard manufacturer"s web site.
31. There are nine attributes that influence performance and also compatibility the a processor with the motherboard. List 4 of them.
Feature 1: Clock rate the processor supports. Feature 2: Processor speed. Function 3: Socket and also chipset the processor deserve to use. Feature 4: Processor style (32 bits or 64 bits). Function 5: Multiprocessing abilities.Feature 6: storage cache, i m sorry is the lot of memory had within the processor package.Feature 7: The memory attributes on the motherboard the the processor have the right to support.Feature 8: support for virtualization.Feature 9: combined graphics.
Memory on the processor dice is referred to as Level 1 cache (L1 cache). Storage in the processor package, however not ~ above the processor die, is referred to as Level 2 cache (L2 cache). Some processors use a third cache farther from the processor core, yet still in the processor package, i m sorry is called Level 3 cache (L3 cache).
An input/output (I/O) unit manages data and also instructions entering and also leaving the processor. A control unit manages all activities inside the processor itself. One or more arithmetic logic devices (ALUs) execute all reasonable comparisons and calculations inside the processor. Registers, i m sorry are small holding areas on the processor chip, work lot like ram does exterior the processor to organize counters, data, instructions, and also addresses the the ALU is at this time processing. Interior memory caches (L1, L2, and also possibly L3) host data and instructions wait to be handle by the ALU. Buses inside the processor attach components in ~ the processor housing.
The rate at i m sorry the processor operates inside is dubbed the processor frequency. Because that example, if the processor operates in ~ 3.2 GHz internally however the Front next Bus is operation at 800 MHz, the processor operates at 4 times the FSB speed. This variable is called the multiplier.
The present AMD processor households are the FX, Phenom, Athlon, and also Sempron because that desktops and also the Athlon, Turion, V Series, Phenom, and Sempron because that laptops.
If the cooler has actually thermal link preapplied, eliminate the plastic from the compound. If the cooler go not have thermal compound applied, put a small dot of link (about the dimension of a little pea) in the facility of the processor. When the cooler is attached and the processor is running, the compound spreads end the surface. Don"t use as well much—just enough to later produce a thin layer. If you usage too much compound, it deserve to slide off the housing and damage the processor or circuits ~ above the motherboard. To get just the ideal amount, you can buy individual packets the each save a solitary application that the heat compound.
37. After you have actually installed a processor what must you execute if you turn on the system and power comes on yet you don"t see any output on the screen and also the mechanism does no seem to be going v its regular boot procedure?
If the strength comes ~ above (you hear the fan spinning and see lights), however the system fails to work, most likely the processor is no seated solidly in the socket or part power cord has actually not however been connected or is no solidly connected. Turn whatever off, unplug the power cord, press the power switch to drain power, open the case, and recheck her installation.
All new motherboards for desktops sold today use a type of storage module referred to as a DIMM (dual inline memory module). Laptops use a smaller sized version that a DIMM dubbed a SO-DIMM (small synopsis DIMM and pronounced "sew-dim"). MicroDIMMs are supplied on subnotebook computers and are smaller than SO-DIMMs. One older form of module is a RIMM, i beg your pardon is draft by Rambus, Inc. Really old computers used SIMMs (single inline storage module). You"re i can not qualify to ever before see this modules in functioning computers.
39. What room the three classification of DDR memory and how do they compare with continuous SDRAM and also each other?
Double Data price SDRAM (DDR SDRAM, or SDRAM II, or simply DDR) is an boosted version the SDRAM. DDR runs twice as quick as continuous SDRAM, has one notch, and also uses 184 pins. Instead of handling data because that each win of the device clock, as continual SDRAM does, it processes data as soon as the win rises and again once it falls, copy the data rate of memory. If a motherboard runs at 200 MHz, DDR memory runs in ~ 400 MHz. 2 other renovations over DDR space DDR2 and also DDR3. DDR2 is faster and also uses much less power than DDR. DDR3 is faster and uses less power than DDR2. Both DDR2 and also DDR3 use 240 pins, although your notches are not in the very same position. They are not compatible, and the different notch positions save someone from installing a DDR2 or DDR3 DIMM in the wrong storage slot.
40. There are 5 questions the you should answer before adding memory to a system. List 3 of those five.
How much RAM do I need and how much is right now installed?How many and what kind of memory modules are right now installed on my motherboard?How many and what kind of modules deserve to I to the right on mine motherboard?How execute I select and purchase the ideal modules because that my upgrade?How do I physically install the new modules?
A heavy state drive (SSD), also called a solid state maker (SSD), is called solid state due to the fact that it has actually no relocating parts. In one SSD drive, flash memory is stored on EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory) chips inside the drive housing. The chips save on computer grids of rows and columns v two transistors at every intersection that hold a zero or one bit. Among these transistors is referred to as a floating gate and accepts the zero or one state follow to a logic test dubbed NAND (stands for "Not AND"). Therefore, the storage in one SSD is dubbed NAND speed memory.
A magnetic tough drive has actually one, two, or much more platters, or disks, that stack together and spin in unison within a sealed metal housing that consists of firmware to manage reading and writing data to the drive and also to interact with the motherboard. The top and bottom of every disk have actually a read/write head that moves across the disk surface as every the disks turn on a spindle. The read/write top are managed by an actuator, which move the read/write heads across the disk surfaces in unison. The decaying surfaces are covered with a magnetic tool that have the right to hold data as magnetized spots.
Data is arranged on a magnetic difficult drive in concentric circles, dubbed tracks. Every track is separated into segments dubbed sectors (also called records). Older tough drives provided sectors that had 512 bytes. Most current hard drives usage 4096-byte sectors.
A difficult drive uses one that two techniques to move data between the difficult drive and also memory: DMA (direct storage access) transfer mode or PIO (Programmed Input/Output) transfer mode. DMA transfers data directly from the drive to memory without involving the CPU. PIO mode entails the CPU and also is slower and older than DMA mode.
PATA drives transfer data in parallel fashion vice versa, SATA supplies serial transfers.PATA cd driver are associated two every cable and SATA drives are associated one every cable.SATA interfaces room much faster than PATA interfaces.SATA deserve to be hot-swapped whereas PATA cannot.
SCSI (pronounced "scuzzy") stands for small Computer system Interface and is a traditional for communication in between a subsystem the peripheral devices and the mechanism bus. The SCSI bus have the right to support approximately 7 or 15 devices, depending upon the SCSI standard. SCSI devices tend to it is in faster, an ext expensive, and also more complicated to download than comparable ATA devices.
When picking a tough drive, store in mind the to get the ideal performance native the system, the system BIOS and also the tough drive need to support the exact same standard. If lock don"t assistance the same standard, lock revert come the slower conventional that both can use, or the drive will certainly not occupational at all.
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48. What room three the the components you should think about when purchase a tough drive that impact performance use, and price?
49. What execute you should do after ~ you install a new hard journey in one existing device that already has a tough drive through Windows installed?
Boot Windows and use the Disk administration utility in windows to prepare the journey for an initial use (called partitioning and formatting the drive).
50. What room the four possible configurations for a drive the is mounted in a mechanism with four EIDE devices?
Primary ide channel, grasp devicePrimary principle channel, slave deviceSecondary concept channel, understand deviceSecondary principle channel, servant device
Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications3rd EditionJohn Cimbala, Yunus A. Cengel
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